The Zettel of Liechtenauer



The Zettel of Liechtenaur

Christian Tobler (Rome Version) & Jeffery Hull (Copenhagen Version) trans.

Source:  Tobler, Christian, and Jeffery Hull. “Johannes Liechtenauer.” Wiktenauer. Ed. Michael Chidester. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Feb. 2015. <;.

Here begins the epitome on the knightly art of combat that was composed and created by Johannes Liechtenauer, who was a great master in the art, God have mercy on him;

first with the longsword, then with the lance and sword on horseback, and then with the half-sword in armoured combat. Because the art belongs to princes and lords, knights and squires, and they should know and learn this art, he has written of this art in hidden and secret words, so that not everyone will grasp and understand it, as you will find described below. And he has done this on account of frivolous fight masters who mistake the art as trivial, so that such masters will not make his art common or open with people who do not hold the art in respect as is its due.

          This is the Prologue

[1] Young knight, learn

to love God and revere women;

thus your honor will grow.

[2] Practice knighthood and learn

the Art that dignifies you,

and brings you honor in wars.

[3] Be a good grappler in wrestling;

lance, spear, sword, and messer

handle manfully,

and foil them in your opponent’s hands.

[4] Strike in and hasten forth;

rush to, let it hit, or go by.

[5] Thus those with wisdom, the ones who

are revered, will envy him.

[6] This you should grasp:

All arts have length and measure.

This is a General Teaching of the Longsword

[7] If you want to behold the art,

See that you go on the left and strike with the right.

[8] And left to right,

is how you strongly want to fight.

[9] He who follows the strokes,

should rejoice little in his art.

[10] Strike close whatever you will,

no Changer will come into your shield.

[11] To the head, to the body

do not shun the Tag-Hits.

[12] Fight with the entire body,

What you powerfully want to do.

[12a] Now mark yet further,

And indeed understand this right-well—

[13] Listen to what is wrong,

do not fight above on the left if you are righthanded;

[14] and if you are left-handed,

on the right you limp as well.

[15] Before and After, these two things,

are to all skill a well-spring.

[16] Weak and Strong,

Always remember the word Instantly.

[17] So you may learn

To work and defend with skill.

[18] If you are easily intimidated,

no fencing should you learn.

[19] Learn five strokes

from the right side against the opposition.

[20] Then we promise

that your arts will be rewarded.

[20a] Thereupon we come to the right grounding

That is the rollicking fighter’s art!

This is the text:

[21] Wrath Stroke, Crooked, Thwart,

Squinter and Scalper,

chasing, overrunning gives strokes,

[22a] Over loping, bind on well;

Stand not still, look what foe could do;

[23] change through, pull,

run through, slice off, press the hands,

[24] hang, wind with the openings;

strike, catch, slash, thrust with jabs.

The Wrath Stroke

[25] Who strikes at you above,

the Wrath stroke threatens him with the point.

[26] If he becomes aware of it,

take it away above without fear.

[27] Be strong against it;

wind, thrust. If he sees that, take it down.

strike, thrust, posture, soft or hard,

[29] Instantly, and Before and After.

Your War should not be in haste.

The War

[30] Who to the War tends above,

gets ashamed below.

[31] In all winding

learn to find stroke, thrust, and slice.

[32] Also you should

Apply stroke, thrust, or slice,

[33] in all encounters,

if you want to fool the masters

The Four Openings

[34] Four openings know,

aim: so you hit certainly,

[35] without any danger

without regard for how he acts;

[35a] if you have correctly learned,

he will scarcely manage to strike.

To Counter the Four Openings

[36] If you want to avenge yourself,

break the four openings with skill:

[37] double above,

transmute below correctly.

[38] I say to you truthfully:

no one can defend himself without danger;

[38a] And frighten at no man,

Stand and look at him earnestly;

[39] if you have correctly learned,

he will scarcely manage to strike.

The Crooked Stroke

[40] Crooked on him with nimbleness,

throw the point on the hands.

[41] Who performs the crooked well,

with stepping he hinders many a stroke.

[42] Strike crooked to the flats

of the Masters if you want to weaken them.

[43] When it clashes above,

Then move away, that I will praise.

[44] Don’t do the Crooked, strike short,

Changing through show with this.

[45] Strike crooked to who irritates you,

the Noble War will confuse him,

[46] that he will not know truthfully

where he can be without danger.

The Thwart Stroke

[47] The Thwart Stroke takes

whatever comes from the roof.

[48] Thwart with the strong,

note your work with this.

[49] Thwart to the Plow;

to the Ox hard together.

[50] He who thwarts well

with springing he endangers the head.

[51] Whoever conducts the Failer

from below he hits at his will.

[52] The Reverser enforces the

running through and also brings wrestling.

[53] The elbow take certainly,

spring into his balance.

[54] Double the Failer,

if you hit, also make the slice.

[55] Twice further on,

step to the left and do not be slow.

The Squinting Stroke

[56] The Squinter breaks into

whatever a buffalo strikes or thrusts.

[57] Who threatens to change through,

the Squinter robs him of it.

[58] Squint when he is short against you,

changing through defeats him.

[59] Squint to the point,

and take the throat without fear.

[60] Squint to the head above

if you want to damage the hands.

[60a] So may you stun him well –

Those failures bereave him of art.

The Scalp Cut

[63] The Scalper is a danger to the face,

[64] with its turn,

very dangerous to the breast.

[65] Whatever comes from him,

the Crown will take it.

[66] Slice through the Crown,

thus you will break it hard through.

[67] Press the strokes,

with slices pull them away.

The Four Guards

[68] Four guards alone hold;

and disdain the common.

[69] Ox, Plow, Fool,

From the Roof should not be unknown to you.

The Four Oppositions

[70] Four are the oppositions

that hurt the four guards very much.

[71] Beware of parrying.

If it happens to you, it troubles you greatly.

[72] If you are parried

and when that has happened,

[73] hear what I advise to you:

Tear away and strike quickly with surprise.

[74] Set upon the four ends.

Stay upon them, learn if you want to bring it to an end.


[75] Learn the chasing

twice, or slice into the weapon.

[76] Two outer intentions.

The work after that begins.

[77] And test the attacks

if they are soft or hard.

[78] Learn the feeling.

The word Instantly slices sharply.

[79] Chase twice,

if you hit, do the Ancient Slice as well.


[80] Who wants to strike below,

overrun him, and he will be shamed.

[81] When it clashes above,

then strengthen: this I truly do praise.

[82] Do your work,

or press hard twice.

Setting Aside

[83] Learn to set aside,

To skillfully hinder stroke and thrust.

[84] Who thrusts at you,

your point hits and counters his.

[85] From both sides

hit every time if you want to step.

Changing Through

[86] Learn the changing through

from both sides, thrust with intent.

[87] Whoever binds to you,

changing through will find him indeed.


[88] Step close in binding.

The pulling provides good finds.


[89] Pull – if he meets, pull more.

Find the work that will hurt him.

[90] Pull in all encounters

against the Masters, if you want to fool them.

Running Through

[91] Run through, let hang

with the pommel. Grasp if you want to wrestle.

[92] Who comes strongly at you,

the running through then remember.

Slicing Off

[93] Slice off the hard ones,

from below in both attacks.

[94] Four are the slices:

two below and two above.

Pressing Hands

[95] Turn your edge,

press the hands to the flats.

[95a] And go after, at the man,

Jolt with the cross already,

[95b] Then you will not be stunned

So have you twice-assaulted.

Two Hangings

[95c] Whoever flows too strongly at you—

Hang and beset him high.

[96] There are two hangings

from one side from the ground.

[98]In all attacks

strike, thrust, posture – soft or hard.

The Speaking Window

[98] Do the Speaking Window,

stand blithely and look at his actions.

[99] Strike him until he is defeated.

When he withdraws from you,

[100] I say to you truthfully:

no one protects himself without danger.

[101] If you have learned this,

he can scarcely manage to strike.

This is the Conclusion of the Epitome

[102] Who conducts well and breaks properly

and finally makes it all right

[103] And splits particularly

everything into three wounders

[104] Who properly well hangs

and also executes the windings,

[105] and the eight windings

views in a righteous way,

[106] and each one of

those same winds I consider to be triple

[107]so they are


[108] And count them only, from both sides.

Eight windings learn with stepping.

[109] And test the bind

no more than soft or hard.

[110] Thus ends Master Liechtenauer’s Art of the Long Sword


Pammachon: Workshop of Byzantine Oplomachia of early period and Byzantine Skirmishes


Done successfully on June 7, 2015  near the Monastery of Kaisariani in Kaisariani Forest, at the medieval church of St. Mark’s Fragkomonastirou, the Pammachon workshop of Historical European Martial Arts (H.E.M.A) on: The Byzantine Oplomachia at the Early Period.

The seminar done under the auspices of the Hellenic Federation of Pankration Sport (Sports branch Pammachon), with instructors: Mr. George E. George and Mr. Chris Giataganna, sponsored with equipment from the Association of Historical Studies Club ‘ Korybantes’, the Philokalia, the Hellenic Armors and Mr. Dimitrios Skourtelis historical researcher and manufacturer of Mêlée weapons. We thank the all for the sponsorship.

Explained the analysis of movement and footwork with the use of any ‘white gun’ regardless of the length and form.

Regular sparring against one or more opponents. Explained how was to fight in phalanx
using spathion, paramiriou, javeling and spear.

Training in the Byzantine phalanx of pace course, pace charge and the pushing pace. Training in scenarios of protection of VIP and supplies and also training in the use of phalanx against cavalry.

Also given great importance in the use of men at arms called psiloi, explained how they lined up in the battlefield, with which way they fought and also the use of archers.

The sources are from the imperial battle books, such as Maurikius and Leon the Wise and the Arrian and Ailianou and also from the ‘De Re Militari’ of Flavius Vegetius Renatus.

Highlighted similarities and differences with the hoplite phalanx of ancient Greeks, the Macedonian phalanx and the ancient Romans.

At the end of the seminar done a ‘battle’ between two groups of skoutatous and psilous, performing tactics.

At the seminar was attended by officers in active employment of the Hellenic Special Forces, Special Guards of the Hellenic Police and also coaches and athletes of the Olympic sports of Fencing and Tae kwon do, and the former Deputy Mayor of St. Paraskevi.


Πάμμαχον: Εργαστήριο Βυζαντινής Oπλομαχίας Πρώιμης Περιόδου και Βυζαντινών Σκριμίδων


Διεξήχθη με μεγάλη επιτυχία στις 7 Ιουνίου 2015 και ώρα 11:30 – 14:30 στα περίχωρα της Μονής Καισαριανής στο δάσος Καισαριανής στο μεσαιωνικό ναό του Αγίου Μάρκου του Φραγκομονάστηρου , το εργαστήριο Παμμάχου Ιστορικών Ευρωπαϊκών Πολεμικών Τεχνών (Η.Ε.Μ.Α) με θέμα: Βυζαντινή οπλομαχία της Πρώιμης Περιόδου.
Το σεμινάριο διεξήχθην υπό την αιγίδα της Ελληνικής Ομοσπονδίας Παγκρατίου Αθλήματος (Κλάδος Άθλησης Παμμάχου), με εισηγητές τον κ. Γεώργιο Ε. Γεωργά και τον κ. Χρήστο Γιαταγάννα, με χορηγούς υλικοτεχνικού εξοπλισμού το Συλλόγο Ιστορικών Μελετών ‘Κορύβαντες’ ,τη Φιλοκαλία ‘Δια χειρός και σιδήρου’, τη Hellenic Armors και τον κ. Δημήτριο Σκουρτέλη, ζωγράφο-αγιογράφο, ιστορικό ερευνητή και κατασκευαστή αγχέμαχων όπλων. Ευχαριστούμε τους φορείς για τη χορηγία τους που με αυτή θα συμβάλλουν στη πραγματοποίηση του σεμιναρίου.

Έγινε ανάλυση της κινησιολογίας οποιουδήποτε ‘λευκού όπλου’ άσχετα με το μήκος και τη μορφή αυτού.

Τακτικές μάχης εναντίον ενός ή περισσοτέρων αντιπάλων αλλά και σε μάχη σε φάλαγγα.
Με χρήση σπαθίον, παραμήριου, ριπτάριου και κονταριού.

Έγινε εκπαίδευση Βυζαντινής φάλαγγας σε βηματισμό πορείας, βάδισμα εφόδου και ωθισμού. Σενάρια προστασίας μεταγωγών και πολύ σημαντικού προσώπου, ενώ εκπαιδεύτηκαν στη φάλαγγα που αντιμετώπιζε ιππείς.

Επίσης δόθηκε μεγάλη σημασία στα τμήματα των ψιλών, που παρατάσσονταν στο πεδίο και με πιο τρόπο πολεμούσαν καθώς και τη χρήση των τοξοτών.

Οι τακτικές και η εκπαίδευση έγινε με βάση τα αυτοκρατορικά βιβλία μάχης που έχουν διασωθεί, όπως του Μαυρίκιου και του Λέοντα του Σοφού καθώς και των τακτικών του Αρριανού και του Αιλιανού αλλά και από το De Re Militari του Βικέντιου.

Επισημάνθηκαν οι ομοιότητες διαφορές με την οπλιτική φάλαγγα των αρχαίων Ελλήνων, την Μακεδονική φάλαγγα αλά και των αρχαίων Ρωμαίων ενώ έγινε εκπαίδευση και στη χελώνα των Ρωμαίων.

Στο τέλος της εκπαίδευσης έγινε ‘μάχη’ ανάμεσα σε δυο ομάδες σκουτάτων και ψιλών δοκιμάζοντας τακτικές.

Στο σεμινάριο παρακολουθήσαν αξιωματικοί εν ενεργεία των Ειδικών Δυνάμεων, Ειδικοί Φρουροί της Ελληνικής Αστυνομίας καθώς και προπονητές και αθλητές των Ολυμπιακών αθλημάτων της Ξιφασκίας και του Tae kwon do,καθώς και ο πρώην αντιδήμαρχος της Αγίας Παρασκευής.

Δόθηκαν πιστοποιητικά παρακολουθήσεως του εργαστηρίου σε όλους τους ασκούμενους.

τηλ: 6945876172