Pammachon: Paramerion and Spathion workshop of Byzantine swordsmanship


At 8 March 2015 conducted with great success, open Historical European Martial Arts workshop, with subject: Paramerion and Spathion workshop of Byzantine swordsmanship.

The workshop was under the sponsorship of the Hellenic Federation of Pankration Athlima (Sport branch Pammachon). The instructor was Mr. George E. Georgas. Sponsored with equipment by the Association of Historical studies ‘KORYVANTES’, the Filokalia ‘made by hand and iron’, Hellenic Armors, and from Mr. Dimitrios Skourtelis historical researcher and weapon maker .

George E. Georgas is:

George E. Georgas is the founder of the Hellenic Academy of Historical European Martial Arts ‘Leontes’. He is certificated fencing instructor of the Hellenic Fencing Federation and also national referee of the Hellenic Fencing Federation at the epee. He is instructor of Meyer Freifechter Guild with the rank of Fecther and he is the Guild Unterhauptman for Greece. He is in the Administration Council of the ‘Pammachon’ and in charge of Oplomachia program. He is also instructor of weapon fighting of the Association of Historical studies ‘KORYVANTES’.

The workshop began with Byzantine oplomachias lecture highlighted how oplomachia of the East Romans passed through the Greeks mercenaries ‘stratioti’ to the armies of Western and Northern Europe in the 15th century.

Reported what equipment brought these warriors and what fighting techniques had, pointing out that they were influenced also by the Ottoman warriors. Proved by scientific research that ‘stratioti’ fought like their predecessors, where called Acrites or Limitanei. It was also reported that the cataphract cavalry of the Empire did not differ from the equipment of Italian and German knights and they had the same offensive and defensive equipment.

Also pointed out that the ‘stratioti’ influenced and changed the structure and practice of the Western armies upgrading the role of the light cavalry, but also explained why they adopted the way of battle of the Greeks. Reported famous Romioi captains who became knights of the Republic of Venice, knights and Counts of the Kingdom of France, knights and nobles of the Holy Roman German Empire, while some even fought on the northern border of England against the Scots under the crown of the English king. Also reported that terrible Aikitzoi, the light cavalry of the Ottomans was originally defected Greeks who changed sides and became followers of the Islam. Also reported the followers of the ‘stratioti’ named Zagradoroi were foot soldiers and fighting a similar manner to the ‘stratioti’ but they were equipped with pole arms, rapiers small shields, crossbows and later they have also breast plates.

Later reported other branches of ‘stratioti’ who were the Argoulets, the Carabins and Croats. All they were serving the Western armies from the 15th century until the 18th century. Also reported the Greeks who served Austria during and after the siege of Vienna by Ottoman to1529 and that through them later created the Grenzer originally were Greeks and gradually replaced by Slavs. There were multiple units Grenzers staffed by Greeks as the battalion of St. George, the battalion of the Cross, the 13th Vlach battalion, the German Vanato battalion, much later the regiment of Hussars border guards and others. So stated the Greek presence in the armies of the West. It obvious that those warriors influence also the fight master.
It was also reported that these warriors were able to defeat the famous warriors who claimed to be invincible until the presence of ‘stratioti’. Those invincible warriors were the French knights and the Swiss Spearmen for example, but the ‘stratioti’ defeat them. Indeed, it was reported that the ‘stratioti’ named Mercurio Buas (later he got titles from the German Emperor) not only won the men’s German mercenaries of the French king but he duel with the king and wounded him severely in the face. Also he disarmed the king and he got his long sword.

It was underlined that those warriors where returned to enslaved Greece from the Ottoman Empire , others were became ‘Klefts’ and took the mountains, while others were became ‘Armatoloi’ and they were having multiple roles.
Also noted that the ‘paramirion’ survived the Turkish occupation in the form of wooden sword the sword and the Greeks trining with it until the rebellion against the Ottomans. Similarities of paramiriou with the German dussack wooden sword and the school of Meyer. How techniques of ‘paramirion’ assimilated by the German school of oplomachia. Similarities sword spathion with rapier and the relationship with the Italian school of oplomachia.

Important information comes from a German fencing master of the 15th century who belonged to the ‘Society of Lichtenauer’, he is the Martin Siber who traveled throughout the Balkans but also in Greece and came into contact with teachers who unfortunately not survived their names, he was indicating them as a respected and well-trained. Martin did this trip in order to enrich in the fencing. Therefore there is no much differences between the German school of fighting with the Byzantine swordsmanship has not too many differences, at least for the long sword, because Martin wrote his book for the use of the long sword. His style analyzed at a later book written by German freifechter and fencing master Joachim Meyer.
Finally mentioned in lecture why ever the Romans of the East not authored fechtbooks .

The participators of the workshop trained following the Hank Reinhardt‘s central canon that the shape of a tool most often defines its use – the trick lies in having the skills to decipher that intent. Moreover, we believe that traditions remain in some shape and form within a region so we based our kinesiology on Greek dance, which many experts believe, has survived unaltered for millennia. We support Tim Dawson‘s position that the movements and strategy outlined in I/33 were present during Byzantine times back to the 11th century. We believe paintings and statues and the photographs of bygone times and that both the human body and the principles of combat have not changed.

Trainees learned:

Α) The guards of paramerion with small shield.
Β) Basic attacks of the upper lines and the deflections and parries of them.
C) The guards of paramerion with free hand or with the sword sheath.
D) Basic attacks of the upper lines and the deflections and parries of them
Ε) The guards of spathion with small shield.
F) Basic attacks of the upper lines and the deflections and parries of them
G) The guards of spathion with free hand or with the sword sheath.
H) Basic attacks of the upper lines and the deflections and parries of them.
I ) Addressing long sword using paramirion and vice versa.

The workshop was attended by athletes and trainers of other combat sports such as the Bujikan, Filipino Kali, Shooting, Fencing, Pangration and Kung fu.

Were given certificates to all practitioners.


Πάμμαχον: Εργαστήριο Ιστορικών Ευρωπαϊκών Πολεμικών Τεχνών (Η.Ε.Μ.Α) με θέμα Βυζαντινή οπλομαχία του 14ου-15ου μ.Χ. αιώνα




Στις 8 Μαρτίου 2015, διεξήχθη με επιτυχία στην αίθουσα της Ακαδημίας Ιστορικών Ευρωπαϊκών Πολεμικών Τεχνών ‘Λέοντες’ της Ανατολικής Αττικής, εργαστήριο Ιστορικών Ευρωπαϊκών Πολεμικών Τεχνών (Η.Ε.Μ.Α) με θέμα Βυζαντινή οπλομαχία του 14ου-15ου μ.Χ. αιώνα.




Το σεμινάριο τελέσθηκε υπό την αιγίδα της Ελληνικής Ομοσπονδίας Παγκρατίου Αθλήματος (Κλάδος Άθλησης Παμμάχου), με εισηγητή τον κ. Γεώργιο Ε. Γεωργά και με χορηγούς υλικοτεχνικού εξοπλισμού το Σύλλογο Ιστορικών Μελετών ‘Κορύβαντες’ ,τη Φιλοκαλία ‘Δια χειρός και σιδήρου’, Hellenic Armors και τον κ. Δημήτριο Σκουρτέλη ιστορικό ερευνητή και κατασκευαστή αγχέμαχων όπλων. Ευχαριστούμε τους φορείς για τη χορηγία τους που με αυτή συνέβαλαν στη πραγματοποίηση του σεμιναρίου.

Ο Γεώργιος Ε. Γεωργάς είναι πιστοποιημένος προπονητής ξιφασκίας της Ε.Ο.Ξ, εθνικός διαιτητής της Ε.Ο.Ξ στο ξίφος μονομαχίας, μέλος του Πάμμαχου και υπεύθυνος του ενόπλου Πάμμαχου ενώ είναι και μέλος και εκπαιδευτής του Meyer Freifechter Guild έχοντας το βαθμό του Fechter και είναι ο Unterhauptman της συντεχνίας στην Ελλάδα, εκπαιδευτής οπλομαχίας του στο Σύλλογου Ιστορικών Μελετών ‘Κορύβαντες’.


Το εργαστήριο Βυζαντινής οπλομαχίας ξεκίνησε με διάλεξη που επισημάνθηκε το πώς η οπλομαχία των Ρωμαίων της ανατολής πέρασε μέσω των Ρωμιών μισθοφόρων ‘stratioti’ στους στρατούς της Δυτικής και Βόρειας Ευρώπης το 15ο αιώνα. Αναφέρθηκε τι εξοπλισμό έφεραν οι πολεμιστές αυτοί και τι τεχνικές μάχης είχαν, ενώ επισημάνθηκε ότι είχαν επιρροές και από τους Οθωμανούς πολεμιστές. Αποδείχθηκε με επιστημονική ερεύνα ότι οι ‘stratioti’μάχονταν όπως οι προκάτοχοι τους, όπου λεγόντουσαν Ακρίτες ή Limitanei. Επίσης αναφέρθηκε ότι οι κατάφρακτοι ιππείς της αυτοκρατορίας δε διέφεραν από τον εξοπλισμό των Ιταλών και Γερμανών ιπποτών ενώ έφεραν τον ίδιο επιθετικό και αμυντικό εξοπλισμό.

Επίσης επισημάνθηκε πως οι ‘stratioti’ επηρέασαν και άλλαξαν τη δομή και τη τακτική των Δυτικών στρατών αναβαθμίζοντας το ρόλο του ελαφριού ιππικού, αλλά και γιατί υιοθέτησαν τον τρόπο του μάχεστε των Ρωμιών. Αναφέρθηκαν ονόματα διάσημων Ρωμιών που έγιναν ιππότες της Γαληνότατης Δημοκρατίας της Βενετίας, ιππότες και κόμηδες του Βασιλείου της Γαλλίας, ιππότες και ευγενείς της Αγίας Ρωμαϊκής Γερμανικής Αυτοκρατορίας, ενώ αρκετοί πολέμησαν ακόμα και στα βόρεια σύνορα της Αγγλίας ενάντια στους Σκοτσέζους κάτω από το στέμμα του Άγγλου βασιλιά. Επίσης αναφέρθηκε ότι οι τρομεροί Αϊκίτζοι, το ελαφρύ ιππικό των Οθωμανών ήταν αρχικά αυτόμολοι Ρωμιοί που άλλαξαν στρατόπεδο και εξισλαμίσθηκαν. Επίσης αναφέρθηκαν οι ακόλουθοι των ‘stratioti’ οι Ζαγραδόροι όπου ήταν πεζοί και μάχονταν με παρόμοιο τρόπο με τους ‘stratioti’.

Αργότερα αναφέρθηκαν τα παρακλαδια των ‘stratioti’ οι οποίοι ήταν οι Argoulets, οι Carabins και οι Croats που υπηρετούσαν τους Δυτικούς στρατούς από το 15ο αιώνα έως και το 18ο αιώνα. Επίσης αναφέρθηκε για τους Ρωμιούς που υπηρέτησαν την Αυστρία κατά αλλά και μετά τη πολιορκία της Βιέννης από τους Οθωμανούς το1529 και πως μέσω αυτών δημιουργήθηκαν αργότερα οι Grenzer που αρχικά ήταν Έλληνες και σταδιακά αντικαταστάθηκαν από Σλάβους. Υπήρχαν πολλαπλές μονάδες Grenzers στελεχωμένα από Έλληνες όπως το σύνταγμα του Αγίου Γεωργίου, το σύνταγμα του Σταυρού, το 13ο Βλάχικο σύνταγμα, το Γερμανικό σύνταγμα του Βανάτου, πολύ αργότερα το σύνταγμα των συνοροφυλάκων Ουσάρων και άλλα. Έτσι επισημάνθηκε η Ρωμαϊκή παρουσία στους στρατούς της Δύσης και μάλιστα σε αυτούς που οι δάσκαλοι οπλομαχίας έγραψαν τα εγχειρίδια μάχης και δημιούργησαν τις σχολές τους.
Επίσης αναφέρθηκε πως αυτοί οι πολεμιστές κατάφεραν νικήσουν με την οπλομαχία τους πολεμιστές που μέχρι τη παρουσία των ‘stratioti’ θεωρούνταν αήττητοι, όπως για παράδειγμα οι Γάλλοι ιππότες αλλά και οι Ελβετοί λογχοφόροι. Μάλιστα αναφέρθηκε πως ο θρύλος των ‘stratioti’ Μερκούριος Μπούας (που αργότερα έλαβε τίτλους από το Γερμανό αυτοκράτορα) όχι μόνο νίκησε με τους άντρες του τους Γερμανούς μισθοφόρους του Γάλλου βασιλιά αλλά μονομάχησε με τον βασιλιά και μάλιστα τον τραυμάτισε σοβαρά στο πρόσωπο ενώ κατάφερε και τον αφόπλισε παίρνοντας το μακρύ σπαθί του ενώ ο βασιλιάς διέφυγε.

Υπογραμμίστηκε ότι όλοι αυτοί οι πολεμιστές όταν γύρισαν στον υπόδουλο υπό της Οθωμανικής αυτοκρατορίας Ελλαδικό χώρο άλλοι έγιναν οι λεγόμενοι ‘κλέφτες’ και πήραν τα βουνά, ενώ άλλοι έγιναν ‘Αρματολοί’ έχοντας πολλαπλούς ρόλους.
Επίσης επισημάνθηκε πως το παραμήριο επιβίωσε στη Τουρκοκρατία με τη μορφή του ραβδό – σπαθιού μέχρι την απελευθέρωση. Τις ομοιότητες του παραμήριου με το Γερμανικό εκπαιδευτικό ξύλινο σπαθί dussack αλλά και τη σχολή του Meyer. Πως τεχνικές του παραμήριου αφομοιώθηκαν από τη Γερμανική σχολή οπλομαχίας. Ομοιότητες του ξίφους σπαθίον με το rapier και η σχέση του με την Ιταλική σχολή οπλομαχίας.
Σημαντική πληροφορία έρχεται από ένα Γερμανό δάσκαλο οπλομαχίας του 15ου αιώνα που άνηκε στη ‘Κοινωνία του Lichtenauer’, είναι ο Martin Siber που ταξίδεψε σε όλα τα Βαλκάνια αλλά και στην Ελλάδα και ήρθε σε επαφή με δάσκαλους που δυστυχώς δε διασώθηκαν τα ονόματα τους και τους αναφέρει ως σεβαστούς και αξιόμαχους, με σκοπό να εμπλουτίσει την οπλομαχία του. Συνεπώς δε διέφερε και πολύ η οπλομαχία των Γερμανών με των Βυζαντινών όσο αφορά τουλάχιστον το μακρύ σπαθί, διότι ο συγκεκριμένος δάσκαλος έγραψε βιβλίο για τη χρήση του μακριού σπαθιού. Μάλιστα το στυλ του αναλύεται αναλυτικότερα σε μεταγενέστερο βιβλίο που γράφτηκε από τον Γερμανό ελεύθερο ξιφομάχο αλλά και δάσκαλο οπλομαχίας, τον Joachim Meyer.
Τέλος αναφέρθηκε στη διάλεξη για ποιους λόγους ποτέ οι Ρωμαίοι της Ανατολής δεν συνέγραψαν εγχειρίδια μάχης.

Έτσι οι ασκούμενοι διδάχτηκαν με βάση τη πρώτη αρχή του Hank Reinhardt, ότι η μορφή ενός εργαλείου καθορίζει τη χρήση του. Έτσι τα Βυζαντινά όπλα έχουν συγκεκριμένη μορφή, που γνωρίζουμε, και άρα γνωρίζουμε και τη χρήση τους.

Οι ασκούμενοι διδαχθήκαν:

Α) Θέσεις φυλάξεως του παραμήριου με μικρή ασπίδα.
Β) Βασικές επιθέσεις των πάνω γραμμών και αποκρούσεις και εκτροπές αυτών.
Γ) Θέσεις φυλάξεως του παραμήριου με ελεύθερο χέρι ή με τη θήκη του σπαθιού.
Δ) Βασικές επιθέσεις των πάνω γραμμών και αποκρούσεις και εκτροπές αυτών.
Ε) Θέσεις φυλάξεως του ξίφους τύπου σπαθίον με μικρή ασπίδα.
Στ) Βασικές επιθέσεις των πάνω γραμμών και αποκρούσεις και εκτροπές αυτών.
Ζ) Θέσεις φυλάξεως ξίφους τύπου σπαθίον με ελεύθερο χέρι ή με τη θήκη του σπαθιού.
Θ) Βασικές επιθέσεις των πάνω γραμμών και αποκρούσεις και εκτροπές αυτών.
Ι) Αντιμετώπιση μακριού σπαθιού με χρήση παραμήριου και το αντίθετο.

Στο εργαστήριο παραβρέθηκαν αθλητές και εκπαιδευτές άλλων μαχητικών αθλημάτων όπως από το Bujikan, Filipino Kali, σκοποβολής, ξιφασκίας, του Παγκρατίου αθλήματος και του Kung fu.

Δοθήκαν πιστοποιητικά παρακολουθήσεως του εργαστηρίου σε όλους τους ασκούμενους.
























Византийски нагръдници(Breastplate)

Дали Византийците от края на 14 век и през целият 15 век са има използвали само и единствено халчести ризници, ламеларни доспехи и люспести брони?
За над 1000 години съществуване на Източната Римска Империя, са използвали само едно и също въоръжение и снаряжение, докато на Запад еволюират в това отношение? Дори да не са достигнали до ковани доспехи и защити?

Ще започнем с избораженията.

В търсене на различни доспехи и снаряжение, ето първото изображение.
Ръкопис от Света гора  (14 век) на конник:



Александър Веклики , ръкопис от 14 век. Войниците са с нагръдници(breastplate) и шлемове наподобяващи базинети:


Войн Светец , от 14 век. Фреска от Св. Георги, Гърция. Светецът е облечен с нагръдник(breastplate), въоръжен с меч, копие и щит:


Православен мъченик:


Св. Теодор(Теодорий), който посича дракона, ръкопис намиращ се в Атина:



( 8 )

В мюсюлманските източници, както и на [url=]Ibn Battuta[/url] (първата половина на 14 век), когато се отнася за завръщане на римската / византийската принцеса (= наричана с името Хатун към текста), които поискала разрешение от своя султан съпруг Usbek(?) да се завърне в  Константинопол, източника описва с какво са били облечени  част от армията, която е предружавала принцесата и брат й. и дойде при нея, и той дава подробности за войниците, тяхното оборудване и формация (в текста Kifali = Kεφαλή = означава, главен ръководител):

… Гърците бяха чули, че тази Хатун се връща в родината си, и дойдоха до тази крепост [на византийската граница], за да се срещне с Kifali [гръцката кефале, което означава главен] Никола, с голяма войска и голяма гостоприемност, придружен от принцесите и медицински сестри от двореца на баща й, царят на Константинопол.

И тук  Ибн Батута описва войниците:

…Стотици войници , облечени с дълги палта от желязо над дългите им ръкави и над конете им, всеки един от тях оседлан [става дума за конете] и брониран, носещ оборудването на конниците, шлемове обковани със бижута, нагръдници(Breastplate), лък и меч, а всеки един войник имаше плочка на шлема изобразяваща герба. Повечето плочки бяха от злато и сребро.

Конникът е облечен със доспех, броня от една цяла част, видемо кована броня. Украсена с допълнителни орнаменти.(изображение 1)
Шлемът не е типичен за римските или византийските. Наподобява базинет със типичната защита за тилът и от към лицето от халчеста плета(или по-вероятно от пластини). На шлемът се вижда нещо наподобяващо визьор. Малко е малък за да бъде функционална защита. Но може би художника е преценил да го нарисува така.
Преди да премина към следващото изображение бих искал да обърна малко вниманието ви към ръкавиците. Наподобяват малко ковани западни ръкавици, но е възможно да са и от халчеста плетка.(изображение 2)

Александър Велики  в Индия – ръкопис от 14 век(изображение 3)
Войниците на Александър Велики са със наподобяващи Breastplate брони.
Шлемовете на някой от тях са напълно идентични със Западните базинети. Защо казвам някой от тях? Защото на част от войниците шлемовете им към тила са малко…странно нарисувани. Но пак може да е прищявка на художника. Също така имат защита от текстил, някой от тях и от пластини под шлемовете(базинети).

Войн Светец , от 14 век. Фреска от Св. Георги, Гърция. Светецът е облечен с нагръдник(breastplate), въоръжен с меч, копие и щит(изображение 4)
Уникално изображение, показващо уникална броня –  нагръдник, богато украсена с различни мотиви. Допълнен е с типичните птеруги. Въпреки това изглежда напълно функционална.
Богата украса също се вижда при Св. Теодор(Теодорий)(изображение 6).

Както на запад така и при нас и във Византия, военното дело се развива. Както и на Запад така и във Византия, сложността на доспехите е зависила от финансовите възможности на поръчителя на бронята.
На някой изображения (изображения 7 и 8) се вижда, че нагръдните брони(breastplate) са съвсем прости без никаква декорация или украса. Освен breastplate, се виждат и ковани рамене, който са декорирани с птеруги.
С времето оръжията се променят, това довежда до промяна и в защитното въоръжение, а това от своя страна води отново до направата на нови оръжия, които да преодолеят тези нови защитни облекла. Промяната на оръжията води до усъвършенстване на защитната екипировка, а това от своя страна води до промяна на бойният стил, формациите и изобщо усъвършенстване на “изкуството на войната
Вижда се тук много ясно, че на Балканите и в частност Византия , не са използвали само плетена ризница, люспеста броня и ламеларен доспех над 1000 години.